The dimensions of the large vole are relatively large, approximately the same as that of the largest voles-houseflies: body length 140-170 mm, tail 40-75 mm, feet 20.0-27.5 mm, skull length 30.0-32.4 mm. There are usually 5 tubercles on the back foot, or, in rare cases, there is an additional sixth.
The coloration of the subspecies of the Far Eastern vole found within the USSR is dark, grayish-brown, the tail is usually sharply two-tone - black on top, whitish below, on southern (Chinese forms) coloration lighter, fawn-brownish. The skull with weakly pronounced ridges, even in older specimens, the interorbital crest is usually weakly marked or absent, the upper line of the skull profile is strongly convex with the highest elevation in the region of the interorbital space. The molars are similar to those of the common vole, but on the 1st lower molar, the 1st external tooth (4th behind) is usually rounded.
Southern Transbaikalia to the north to the lower river. Selenga, the cities of Chita and Nerchinsk, the southern parts of the Far East to the north to about 54 ° C. w. and to the west to Bolshoi Khingan, it is especially numerous in the following areas: Suchansky, Shkotovsky, Posyetsky, Voroshilovsky, Ivanovsky, Pokrovsky, Chernihiv, Khankaysky, Grodekovsky, Spassky and Yakovlevsky. It is also widespread in eastern China and Korea.
Large or Far Eastern vole (Microtus fortis)
A large vole lives mainly along the banks of rivers, lakes and swamps, and is also found far from water on cultivated lands. Burrows have a complex structure (the number of outlet openings reaches 20), but often voles dig a simple device temporary burrows under ricks, on arable land, on dams of rice plantations, etc.
In summer, animals come to the surface, mainly at night, autumn, winter and spring - mainly during the day. During the ripening period of cultivated plants, migrations of voles to fields, gardens, etc. are observed. The reproduction rate is high; when kept in a cage, one pair brought 6 litters from April to November, sexual maturity occurs at the age of 3% -4 months, the average number of cubs in a litter 6 (from 3 to 13). The number of voles is subject to strong fluctuations, mass reproduction is not uncommon. In addition to various wild plants, it eats many cultivated plants (wheat, rye, buckwheat, corn, rice, garden and melon plants, sugar beets, fruit tree bark, etc.). In the southern regions of the Far East is an important pest, especially cereals. The skins of this vole are used as one of the secondary species of fur.
On the territory of the USSR, 2 weakly isolated subspecies of the Far Eastern vole are distinguished: 1) M. f. michnoi Kastscli. (1910) - the color is grayish-brown, the sides are much lighter, the bottom is whitish, the tail is sharply two-tone, black on top. the bottom is whitish, the dimensions are slightly smaller than that of the Far Eastern form (back foot up to 24 mm, skull length up to 32.3 mm), southern Transbaikalia.
2) M. f. pelliceus Thomas (1911) - similar in appearance to the previous one, the dimensions are slightly larger (the length of the back foot is up to 27.6 mm, the skull is up to 34.2 mm), the southern parts of the Far East.
Abstract of a scientific article in biological sciences, the author of a scientific paper is Frisman L.V., Kartavtseva I.V., Kapitonova L.V., Vysochina N.P., Ryabkova A.V.
The involvement of genetic characteristics as diagnostic characters showed the widespread occurrence of two species of gray voles Maximovich vole and large (Far Eastern) vole in the territory of the Jewish Autonomous Region. In the Bastak reserve, the Maximovich vole was not previously noted. According to our data, it is a dominant species in a wet, dotted sedge meadow on the outskirts of the southern and southwestern parts of the Bastak reserve.
The text of the scientific work on the theme "Genetic study of gray voles of the genus Microtus in the Jewish Autonomous Region"
Regional issues. 2011. Volume 14, No. 2. P. 70-77.
A GENETIC STUDY OF THE GRAY VOLES OF THE? OJ AMICROTUS TERRITORY OF THE JEWISH AUTONOMOUS REGION
L.V. Frisman1, I.V. Kartavtseva2, L.V. Kapitonova1, N.P. Vysochina3, A.B. Ryabkova3 Institute for the Complex Analysis of Regional Problems, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sholom-Aleichem 4, Birobidzhan, 679016, e-mail: [email protected], [email protected] 2 Biological and Soil Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect 100, Vladivostok 159, 690022, Vladivostok, e- mail: [email protected] 3 Khabarovsk Anti-Plague Station, Rospotrebnadzor, per. Sanitary 7, Khabarovsk, 680031, e-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
The involvement of genetic characteristics as diagnostic characters showed the widespread occurrence of two species of gray voles in the territory of the Jewish Autonomous Region - the Maximovich vole and the large (Far Eastern) vole.
In the Bastak reserve, the Maximovich vole was not previously noted. According to our data, it is a dominant species in a wet, dotted sedge meadow on the outskirts of the southern and southwestern parts of the Bastak reserve.
Key words: biodiversity, species, gray voles.
"The distinction between species taxa is based on the study of morphological, geographical, environmental, behavioral, molecular and other characteristics." However, the evolutionary rates of various trait systems, as a rule, do not coincide, and therefore the resolving power of each of the listed list of characteristics covers a limited section of the taxonomic hierarchy. The broadest coverage is provided by the morphological characteristics that pBie underlie the many existing taxonomic tables and are widely used in the practice of describing biological diversity. There was no exception to the description of the biodiversity of mammals of the Bastak Reserve in the territory of the Jewish Autonomous Region (EAO) 1, 5. Among the other species that live in the reserve, only the large or Far Eastern vole Microtus fortis Buchner, 1889 was noted here for the species of gray voles Microtus.
The large vole is quite widespread. Its range covers northern Mongolia,
East China, Korea Peninsula. In Russia, in the southern Transbaikalia, this species populates the territory to the north to the lower reaches of the river. Selenga, the cities of Chita and Nerchinsk, and in the southern part of the Far East - to the north to 54 degrees N .
Microtus fortis settles in wetlands in river floodplains, mountain valleys of the forest zone, along the banks of rivers and lakes, and is often found far from the water on cultivated lands.
In the same region, similar biotopes can be occupied by another representative of the genus of gray voles, namely the vole of Maximovich Microtus
maximowiszii Szghepk, 1858. The latter is spread over wetlands of the forest zone in Buryatia, Northern Mongolia (from where it enters Transbaikalia), and in northeastern China (from where it enters Priamurye) to Khabarovsk. In other words, the large vole and vole of Maximovich are sympatric in a significant part of their ranges. Moreover, sometimes representatives of both species are found in the same locality and in the same biotope, which was discovered by us in the vicinity of s. Lenin EAO.
The practical significance of studying the distribution of these species is determined, first of all, by their sanitary-epidemiological characteristics as carriers of different spectra of natural focal infectious diseases.
The high chromosomal variability characterizing the genus MzhgoShz determines its theoretical significance as a model object for studying the ways and mechanisms of speciation.
The Bolshoi vole and Maksimovich’s vole are morphologically close, but karyotypically different species: M. / ogIya (2n = 52, No. ',' = 62-64), and M. tahjomgzhgi (2i = 36-44, KPa = 50 -60) 6-8. To identify such taxa, the diagnostic value of the methods of comparative karyology is high and the comparative morphological analysis is insufficient.
Another genetic method to identify differences in morphologically close species is electrophoretic analysis of beige. Long-term studies of proteins in karyologically typified representatives of the Maximovich vole (a total of 81 individuals from the territory of Transbaikalia and Sredne-
of the Amur region) and the large vole (a total of 121 individuals from the territory of the Middle, Lower Amur and Primorye) at 23–25 interpretation loci 11–13, 16 allowed us to isolate only two proteins useful for the separation of these species.
In Vole Maksimovich, 4 two-band (presumably homozygous) and 3 three-zone (presumably heterozygous) electrophoretic transferrin phenotypes were found. All these phenotypes have less anodic mobility than the only three-zone transferrin phenotype (M- ^, found in a large vole. These results suggest the absence of common alleles at a given locus in the species under consideration, which means that this character is promising for their separation.
The large vole and Maximovich vole, as a rule, show different electrophoretic hemoglobin phenotypes. The hemoglobin of the large vole is represented by one bright zone, whereas in the Maximovich vole, by two zones of different intensities. The bright zone of mobility coincides with the hemoglobin zone of the large vole. The second zone is less mobile and less brightly colored. One band hemoglobin phenotype, identical to the phenotype of the large vole, was found in only two instances of the Maximovich vole. Such a low frequency of occurrence (about 2.5% of the total sample) suggests its occurrence in the Maximovtch vole as a result of a mutation and, in our opinion, attract hemoglobin together with transferrin to the separation of these species.
The purpose of this work is to study the species composition and distribution of gray voles in the territory of the EAO, using genetic characteristics as diagnostic characters: karyotypes and electrophoretic spectra of two blood proteins - hemoglobin and transferrin.
Materials and methods
The material of this study was 44 copies. of gray voles caught in the regions of the EAO in 2009-2010 In addition, the data on 10 ind. gray voles studied in the region earlier. Information about the places of capture and the amount of the investigated material are given in table. 1 and in fig. 1.
Metaphase chromosome preparations were prepared in laboratory and field conditions using the direct method from animal red bone marrow according to the generally accepted method. For analysis of chromosome numbers and morphology of chromosomes, the preparations were stained with 2% orcein and 2% azure-eosin solution (Giemsa stain, Merck, Germany). Differential G-staining of chromosomal preparations was carried out according to the method of M. Seabright.
Chromosomal preparations were examined under an Axioscop microscope (Zeiss, Germany). For recording and processing micro images, the AxioCam HR CCD camera and AXIOVISION software (Carl Zeiss Microbnaging GmbH, Germany) were used.
The selection of tissues for electrophoresis from the reserve "Bastak" and the vicinity of Birobidzhan was carried out in laboratory conditions. The primary processing of material from other regions is in the field. Held
Fig 1. Captures of gray voles of the genus Microtus
The taxonomic composition, the volume of the studied material and the catch point in the territory of the Jewish Autonomous Region
No. pp. Place of capture. Year of catch Biotope Number of individuals
karyological analysis allozyme analysis
Micro M. f. tusfortis Büchner, 1889 pellicius Kastschenko, 1910 *
1 Valley p. Birana in the northwestern outskirts of Birobidzhan. 2010 Veynikovo-sedge meadow with a rare hummock turning into a swamp. thirteen
2 10 km east of the town of Birobidzhan, 2010 Veinikovo-sedge hummock along the banks of an overgrown lake near a foundation pit filled with water. 2 2
3 Neighborhood with. Amurzet. 2009 Agricultural landscape, weed, along the edges of the field and vegetable gardens overgrown with weed. 2 5
Microtus maximowiczii Schrank, 1859 M. m. maximowiczii Schrenck, 1858.
4 South-western edge of the reserve "Bastak". 2010 Wet, dotted sedge meadow. - 2
5 Near the bridge on the river. Clay on the road Birobidzhan-Kukan. 2010 Wet, dotted sedge-reed meadow. 2 6
A mane in a wet reed-sedge dotted meadow. 2
The outskirts of a sedge-reed-grass meadow forbs along the birch-rive rails. thirteen
The burner along the route with the surviving fir, birch, willow, aspen, along the stream, in the undergrowth shrubs with shrubs, in some places hummocks. 2
6 Ridge Small Khingan. Valley of the river Kuldur in the vicinity of the village. Kuldur. 2010 Coastal shrub zone on the outskirts of a mixed grass meadow. 2
7 Valley of the river. Cupid along the western slopes of the ridge. Small Khingan, neighborhood with. Radde. 2010 Abandoned farmland overgrown with weeds, with rare sedge hummocky and individual shrubs. 3
In the vicinity of with. Lenin. 2009 Forbidden meadow overgrown with rare shrubs. Wetland-reed meadow. 3 3
9 Neighborhood with. Amurzet. 2009 The edge of pine planting. Dry sandy meadow overgrown with undersized shrubs. eleven
From Friesman et al., 2009
Micro M. f. tus fortis Büchner, 1889 pellicius Kastschenko, 1910
10 Neighborhood s. Leninsky Riverbank, overgrown with herbs and shrubs, on the border with a hummocky meadow. 2 2
Microtus maximowiczii Schrank, 1859 M. m. maximowiczii Schrenck, 1858
9 Neighborhood with. Leninsky Riverbank, overgrown with herbs and shrubs, on the border with a hummocky meadow. 4 5
11 Surroundings of the village Aur Mixed biotope, fragmentedly consisting of variously grassy, moist with hummock plots and shrubs between pits filled with water. 2 2
12 13 km south of Birobidzhan, between s. Waldheimis. Yellow Yar. Agrocenosis is a forest belt between a road and a field. eleven
starch gel protein electrophoresis. Electrophoretic hemoglobin variants were observed in unpainted gel, transferrin - when stained for “total protein”.
Results and discussion
1. Karyological analysis.
The studied 11 specimens of gray voles (captured in 2009-2010) were divided into 2 groups, which differ in karyotypic characteristics.
The first includes animals from points 2–3 (Table 1) with karyotypes characteristic of the large vole Microtus fortis (Table 2, Fig. 2). The chromosomal sets of these voles had a stable karyotype - 2n = 52, NFa = 64: four pairs of medium-sized metacentric (M) chromosomes, two pairs of subtelocentric (St) chromosomes and one pair with barely noticeable shoulders on one of the medium-sized chromosomes (St / A ) and 18 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes, smoothly decreasing in size from medium to small. The X chromosome is a medium sized metacentric, the Y chromosome is an acrocentric small chromosome. This species is characterized by a morphological polymorphism of one of the three average chromosome sizes - St / St, St / A, A / A. In EAO, we also found polymorphism of this pair. In fig. 2 shows a karyotype having a heterozygous St / A variant. The distribution frequencies of this variant in various populations are not presented in this paper. This pair in the majority of the previously studied populations of the Primorsky Territory, Transbaikalia, and Mongolia is of the sub-metacentric - St / St 9-10.16.
The second group combines animals from points 5, 8–9 (Table 1) and is represented by animals with karyotypes characteristic of the Maximovich vole (Table 2). Chromosome sets of studied animals from okr. from. Amurzet (point 8 of Table 1) and p. Leninsky (point 1 of Table 1) had 40 or 41 chromosomes. The nature of chromosomal variation is due to the fusion of two meta-centrics with the formation of one (2n = 41) or two (2n = 40) large chromosomes. Such a karyotype and character of variability corresponds to the chromosomal “form C” described for the vole of this species from Amurskaya
8 9 10 11 12 13
at t # II II • # té
14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25
Figure 3. Karyotypes of the vole of Maximovich Microtus maximowiczii from the Bastak reserve: A - stain with orsein, male No. 2775, B - differential G-staining, male No. 2777
region, EAO and Khabarovsk Territory. Earlier, we discovered pericentric inversion in a small acrocentric (A) pair of chromosomes, which as a result becomes sub-telecentric (St). Such an inversion was previously noted for two individuals from the Khabarovsk Territory and from the vicinity of s. Aur in the JAO. For chromosome sets of voles of the Bastak reserve, no polymorphism was noted in number and morphology of chromosomes, the animals studied had 2n = 40 (Fig. 3A).
The karyotype of the studied animals from the Bastak reserve has one pair (No. 1) large, three pairs
Figure 2. The karyotype of the great vole Microtus fortis (male No. 2786, okrug Birobidzhan)
Figure 4. Electrophoretic phenotypes of hemoglobin (A) and transferrin (B) of the large vole (Microtus fortis) and Maximovich vole (Microtus maximowiszii):
A: 1, 2 - Microtus fortis ■, 3, 4 - Microtus maximowiszii, B: 1,2-Microtus fortis 3-5 - Microtus maximowiszii
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12 Neighborhood s. Amur Zeta (point 9 of Table 1). 1 2n = 40, NFa = 58 1 Hb-C = 1 Trf-c-c = 1 Our data
Totally for M. max. Scholchu2p 14 2n = 40-41, NFa = 5 8-60 32 Hb-B = 0.03 Hb-C = 0.97 Trf - dd = 0.36 Trf - cc = 0.25 Trf - bd = 0.03 Trf - cd = 0.36
(Nos. 2-4) of small metacentrics (Fig.3 A), three pairs (No. 5-7) of the submeta - subtelocentric chromosomes, decreasing in size from large to medium, one (No. 8) large submetacentric and one (No. 9) small sub-telo-submetacentric, ten pairs (No. No. 10-19) of acrocentric chromosomes that gradually decrease in size. The X chromosome is an acrocentric of medium size, the U chromosome is a small acrocentric. The chromosome set is divided into groups. The first group includes a pair of the largest metacentric. In a given species, this pair can be heteromorphic (2n = 41), i.e. represented by one large metacentric and two metacentric chromosomes, which upon fusion give the second large metacentric chromosome of the first pair. The second group of chromosomes is three pairs of metacentrics, which are constant in morphology in all studied animals of this species. The third group consists of three pairs of subtelocentrics; they can also be constant in number and morphology in many populations. The fourth group is variable in the number and size of the chromosome. So, the medium-sized submetacentric can be represented by two pairs of acrocentric chromosomes that formed it during centromere fusion. In a population near Khabarovsk (Utina station), heteromorphism was found for this pair (medium-sized submetacentrics and two acrocentric chromosomes homologous to the shoulders of the metacentric). The inter-meta-subtelocentric in this group can be represented by an acrocentric. Submeta-subtelocentric appeared as a result of pericentric inversion in the acrocentric chromosome. The fifth group is represented by acrocentric chromosomes, the number of which varies in different chromosome forms.
Differentially O-stained chromosomes of one of the two karyotyped individuals of the Bas-Tak reserve (Fig. 3 B) correspond to differentially-stained chromosomes of the Maximovich vole from the Amur Region (Arkhar settlement). The obtained chromosomal data confirm the identity of the karyotype (without differential staining) of the studied animals to that of the chromosomal “form C” of Maximovich vole.
2. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins.
An electrophoretic analysis of blood proteins was carried out in 44 specimens of gray voles captured in 2009-2010. In the table. 2 presents the results of the study, and in Fig. Four options schemes for explored beige.
Transferrin. In the considered material, 4 variants of transferrins were found: three-zone (Fig. 4 B: 1, 2), two two-zone (Fig. 4 B: 3, 4) and heterozygous of these two variants (Fig. 4 B: 5).
Hemoglobin. Two electrophoretic hemoglobin phenotypes were found in the material under consideration: 1) - one intensely colored zone, 2) - 2 zones of varying intensity. Intensively colored zones of these phenotypes have identical electrophoretic mobility. The weakly colored zone of the two-zone phenotype is less mobile (Fig. 4 A).
Judging by the distribution of variants of both hemoglobin and transferrin, all animals considered fall into 2 groups. One of them with the single-zone hemoglobin phenotype characteristic of a large field vole (Fig. 4 A: 1, 2), the fastest three-zone transferrin phenotype (Fig. 4 B: 1, 2), including animals diagnosed with karyologically diagnosed as bryococcus pylori , is represented by two samples from the vicinity of Birobidzhan (points 4-5 of table 1). As can be seen from the table. 2, earlier representatives of this species were discovered by us in samples from the environs of s. Lenin.
The second group with the two-zone hemoglobin phenotype characteristic of the Vole Maksimovich (Fig. 4 A: 3, 4), less mobile transferrin phenotypes (Fig. 4 B: 3, 4, 5), including animals diagnosed with karyologically diagnosed as Mgsgo / m takh1tom? 1z2I :, it is represented by samples of the Bastak reserve, the Small Khingan ridge and the southern territories of the EAO (points 4–9 of Table 1). As can be seen from the table. 1, 2, previously representatives of this species we found in the okr. from. Leninsky, okr. with Aur and at a point localized 13 km south of Birobidzhan.
Thus, the use of genetic characteristics as diagnostic characters showed the widespread occurrence of two species of gray voles in the territory of the EAO - the Vole Maksimovich and the large vole. The sympathetic habitat of the vole Maksimovich and the big vole in the same biotope was found in the valley of the river. Cupid, in the area. from. Leninsky, and near with. Amurzet biotopes of these species varied. A large vole was found in a wetter biotope than the Maximovich vole. The distance between the populations did not exceed two kilometers. The collection of gray voles is also geographically close in the vicinity of Birobidzhan (the valley of the Bira river). Here, a large vole dominates the low and wet biotope, and a single specimen of the Maximovich vole is captured in a drier biotope in a forest plantation between the road and farmland.
On the outskirts of the southern and southwestern parts of the Bastak Nature Reserve, Maksimovich’s vole is a dominant species in a wet, shaded sedge meadow and is represented by single specimens on drier sections of the burner with surviving fir, birch, willow, aspen, along the stream, in the juvenile chicken bush with a rare scotch. As mentioned above, in the Bastak Reserve, the vole of Maximovich was not previously noted. THEM. Gromov and RV. Yerbayev pointed out that the vole of Maximovich has “a foot constantly with 6 corns.” According to a number of researchers 2, 11, this symptom cannot be used in diagnostics, since both species practically do not differ in it. We also believe that the number of corns cannot be diagnostic, since the specimens of the Maximovich vole from the Bastak reserve and the large vole that we examined were characterized by 5 corns on the foot. Genetic data (both karyology and biochemistry) convincingly show that all the gray voles of the Bastak reserve that we studied are the Vole of Maksimovich.
According to A.M. Long, in the Bastak Nature Reserve, gray voles dominate the rare-standing larch marie represented by Kayander larch, with shrubs (blueberries, rosemary, cranberries) and developed moss cover from sphagnum mosses. In the meadow landscape, alternating with copses (cuts) of Mongolian oak, Manchurian birch, aspen and shrubs, including swampy meadow areas, where the grass cover consists mainly of hummock-forming sedges, they are also among the dominant species.
We agree with the opinion of A.M. Long. According to our data, gray voles are also characteristic of a meadow landscape of varying degrees of moisture and various composition of the species of herbaceous plants and shrubs included in it, sometimes with a small presence of trees (larch, white birch, Mongolian oak, aspen). In addition, it was found that Maximovich vole is highly represented in agrocenoses on abandoned fields. We assume that in some years, when the abundance in the main habitats is high, in uncharacteristic biotopes they can even be included in the category of ordinary species.
Based on the obtained, however, very fragmented data, it can be assumed that Maximovich’s vole is more eurytopic - populating, like a large vole, humid habitats, it penetrates further into the drier and higher elevated territories of the region than the large vole. It was the Maksimovich vole that we discovered on a mixed grass meadow in the valley of the river. Kul fools and in the stepped riverine areas of Small Khingan. In this regard, there is a promising study of the biotopic confinement of the distribution of gray voles in the Middle Amur Region using diagnostics based on genetic characteristics.
The authors are sincerely grateful
0.L. Revutskaya and N.P. Shestopaloeu for help in collecting material.
This work was partially supported by grants RFBR-09-04-00146-a, RFBR-10-04-10034-k, RFBR-11-04-10061-k and grants FEB RAS: 09-1-P23-13, FEB 09-III-A-06-168, 09-II-CO-06-006, 09-II-C0-06-007у 09-11-У0-06-005, as well as with the technical support of the microscopy laboratory of the Collective Use Center " Biotechnology and genetic engineering ”(BPI FEB RAS, Vladivostok).
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With the help of genetic characteristics it was shown that the two species of gray voles - the Maximovich Microtus and the Fortis Microtus - are widespread in the territory of the Jewish autonomous region.
The Maximovich Microtus had not been observed in the Bastak reserve before. According to our data, now this is a dominant species inhabiting a wet sedge meadow at the border of southern and southwest parts of the "Bastak".
Key words: biodiversity, species, gray voles.
Great Vole (Microtus fortis)
Great Vole. Body length up to 170 mm, tail length up to 75 mm (from 1/3 to 1/2 body length). The body color is dark, grayish-brown, the tail is usually sharply two-tone: black above, whitish below. On the foot, usually five, less often six plantar tubercles.
Skull with weakly pronounced ridges even in older specimens: the crest in the interorbital space is usually poorly marked or absent. The upper line of the skull profile is strongly convex, with the highest elevation in the interorbital region. The structure of the molars is similar to that of an ordinary vole, but the front external tooth of the anterior lower molar (Mi) usually has a rounded apex.
Spread. Moist and swampy areas in river valleys and mountain gorges in northern Mongolia, eastern China and on the peninsula of Korea. Comes in the southern Transbaikalia to the north to the lower reaches of the river. Selenga, the cities of Chita and Nerchinsk, as well as in the southern parts of the Far East to the north to 54 ° C. w.
Biology and economic importance. A large vole settles along wetlands in river floodplains and mountain valleys of the forest zone, along the banks of rivers and lakes, and is often found in significant quantities far from water on cultural lands, as well as in buildings.
Burrows have a complex structure and a large number of exits (up to 20), but quite often animals dig and temporal burrows of a simple device, especially in places where winter stocks are harvested, including on arable land, under stacks, on the banks of irrigation canals in rice plantations, in residential cellars buildings. In habitats with significant moisture, as well as in winter they live in terrestrial and semi-terrestrial nests. In the conditions of southern Primorye, autumn nests were observed both in the region of temporary burrows, where they are not connected with underground passages, and in the main colony associated with these latter. In summer, large voles come to the surface mainly at night, and during the rest of the year, during the day.
During the ripening period of cultivated plants, migrations to fields and vegetable gardens are observed. Seasonal change of feed like other voles. In addition to various wild plants, it eats a large number of cultivated crops: cereals, buckwheat, corn, garden and melons, and also feeds on bark of shrubs and trees, including fruit trees, in winter. The instinct of winter food storage is apparently less pronounced, although root reserves weighing up to 1.4 kg were found in the south of Primorsky Krai (Khasansky district).
Breeding intensity is high: when kept in captivity, one pair brought 6 litters from April to November, the average number of cubs was 6 (from 3 to 13). The number is subject to sharp fluctuations.
In the southern regions of the Far East, the large vole is an important pest in the fields of grain crops, in forest and fruit nurseries, in gardens and on ginseng plantations. The natural carrier of the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, tularemia, tick-borne typhoid fever of the East, leptospirosis diseases. Skins are used as one of the secondary types of fur.
Geographic variation and subspecies. Southern forms are larger than northern ones and lighter colored. 3 subspecies are known, 2 of them are indicated for the territory of the USSR.
Literature. Mammals of the USSR. Part 1. Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963
Great Vole - Microtus fortis
Great Vole - Microtus fortis
(body length 14-17 cm, tail length slightly less than half the body length.
Coloring is dark, grayish-brown, tail from above is black, abdomen is ash-gray. Paws are light from above. It lives in Transbaikalia, Amur Region and Primorye, along meadows and floodplains of rivers.
Encyclopedia of the nature of Russia. - M .: ABF. V.L. Dinets, E.V. Rothschild. 1998.
See what the "Big Vole" is in other dictionaries:
Housekeeper vole - Microtus oeconomus see also 11.10.3. Genus Gray voles Microtus Vole housekeeper Microtus oeconomus (body length 10 15 cm), tail length about half the body length. The color of the top is from light brownish to blackish brown. Tail ... ... Animals of Russia. Directory
Middendorff Vole - Microtus m> Animals of Russia. Directory
Common vole - Microtus arvalis see also 11.10.3. Genus Gray voles Microtus Common vole Microtus arvalis (except for the north): in the Caucasus and south of Central Siberia, in fields, meadows, clearings, forest edges, in settlements. It is often found in winter in ... ... Animals of Russia. Directory
Dark vole - Microtus argestis see also 11.10.3. Genus Gray voles Microtus Dark vole Microtus argestis (Table 54) It looks like an ordinary vole, but darker, the length of the tail is about a quarter of the length of the body. The tubercles on the foot of the hind paw ... ... Animals of Russia. Directory
Muy vole - Microtus mujanensis see also 11.10.3. Genus Gray voles Microtus Muiskaya vole Microtus mujanensis (inhabits the Muisko-Kuandinsky and possibly Baunt basins of the Stanovoi Upland in Northern Transbaikalia in the sparse taiga. ... ... Animals of Russia. Directory
Evoron vole - Microtus evoronensis see also 11.10.3.Genus Gray voles Microtus Evoron vole Microtus evoronensis (Table 54) Very similar to the Uyghur vole and housekeeper. The color is often dark, reddish chestnut with fawn ripples, ... ... Animals of Russia. Directory
Rod Gray Voles - 11.10.3. Genus Gray voles Microtus Typical inhabitants of grassy open spaces. Small animals (body length up to 15 17 cm) with a blunt muzzle and small ears. The length of the tail is not more than half the length of the body, it is covered with sparse short hair, and ... ... Animals of Russia. Directory
Table 54 - Table 54. 266 diagram of the common vole burrow, 268 dark vole, 270 Middendorff vole, 272 vole housekeeper, 273 Uyghur vole, 274 Mui vole, 275 Eurasian vole, 277 large vole (277a, 277b color options) ... Animals of Russia. Directory
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome - (synonym: hemorrhagic nephrosonephritis, Far Eastern hemorrhagic fever, etc.) is an infectious disease characterized by fever, kidney damage and, in some cases, the development of hemorrhagic syndrome. Belongs to the group ... ... Medical Encyclopedia
HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME - (synonym: hemorrhagic hiephrosoephritis) - an infectious disease characterized by fever, kidney damage and, in some cases, the development of hemorrhagic syndrome. The causative agent is a virus. The source of the causative agent of the infection are rodents (redhead ... ... Encyclopedic dictionary of psychology and pedagogy