The pearl of Russian horse breeding is Oryol horse. But don’t think that it’s any horse in the Oryol region. This is a separately bred breed, whose representatives got their name in honor of Count Alexei Orlov.
He is the founder of the breeding factory near Moscow. Currently, this breed is one of the oldest and most popular in Russia, which has no analogues in the world. The main feature of the Oryol horse can be called its ability to frisky trot, which is inherited. Therefore, such horses are also called Oryol trotters. They repeatedly won prizes in prestigious competitions and exhibitions.
High adaptive abilities make it possible to use such horses in various climatic conditions. Their habitat is wide enough, occupying the territory from the Baltic states to the Far East and from Arkhangelsk to Uzbekistan. The seed of the Oryol trotters is used to improve other breeds, thus, trying to endow them with the best qualities.
Oryol trotting horse - This is the result of a bold and competent selection. This light-horse is involved in many types of competitions: driving, dressage, show jumping and amateur riding. We give an approximate external description of the Oryol horses. The average height of horses of this breed is 161 cm, and stallions 162 cm.
They weigh 500 kg. Bust 180 cm. The physique of these horses is tendon. A small head with a high forehead flaunts on a long neck with a beautiful swan bend. The profile can be said to be aristocratic - hunchbacked. Most of the high-speed trotters are owners of the length of the back and strong legs. A good volume of bone under the knee proves their strength.
As seen on photo orlovskaya horse It happens: gray, black, gray in apples, red and roan suit. Bulan and salt trotters are very rare. The exterior of this breed is of 3 types: light, intermediate and massive. It is worth mentioning the nature of these animals. Such horses are obedient, calm and balanced.
But you should not think that they behave like old nags, they are very energetic creatures, ready to run at any time. As pets, they have established themselves only on the positive side: they are friendly and peaceful. Today they are used not only in running sports, but also in tourism and agriculture.
Care and price
One of the important aspects of caring for the Oryol horse is cleaning the stall. 2 times a day, it is necessary to remove feces and wet litter. Dry litter prevents a number of diseases, one of which is dermatitis. Once a week, clean the feeder. Remove food residues and wash with soda. The same rule applies to drinking bowls. Walls are disinfected once a quarter.
Before training, you will need to clean the mount. For scraper, you will need a scraper, brushes, a bundle of hay, a comb, a hook (for hooves). With the help of all these tools, the head, neck and the entire body of the animal are cleaned, hair and tail are combed, and the hooves are brought into proper shape.
It is necessary to pay attention to the horse’s teeth: remove tops, file sharp edges of teeth, treat inflamed gums. If you monitor the condition of the oral cavity of the horse, then you can simplify the development of soft control and proper posture in the animal.
It is important to ensure that the horse is not soiled or wet. After washing and intense training, you must get rid of moisture and sweat. You need to start from the left side of the horse. The horse's legs should also be smooth and scrubbed.
After running and productive work, the nostrils are cleaned. This should be done with a damp sponge. You need to choose a comfortable saddle for your pet, especially if the horse has a high withers. Thus, various mechanical damage to the horse's skin can be prevented.
These animals are easily trained and are ready to make every effort to please their owner. They quickly learn the team. But do not stop the horse with a whip, use a rope as an alternative.
Horses of this breed are quite sensitive. The main thing is to treat them calmly and patiently. No need to be cruel to them or force them to study. This approach can make the animal intimidated or, conversely, aggressive.
To date, centers for breeding Oryol breed of horses located in Russia and Ukraine. The most famous of them are Khrenovsky, Chesmensky, Moscow, Altai and Dubrovsky stud farms.
Price Oryol breed ranges from 60 to 300 thousand rubles. A number of factors influence how much the Oryol horse costs: awards received, pedigree, age, state of health, and external indicators.
The performance and health of the Oryol horse depends not only on care, but also on nutrition. The diet of this "athlete" must contain vitamins and minerals. Representatives of this breed need fresh grass. In the summer, it should make up most of the food consumed. In winter, this figure is less.
So a foal needs about 30 kg / day, and an adult horse - at least 50 kg / day. The menu of the Oryol handsome man in winter consists of hay, barley, corn, wheat and oats. From vegetables, you can give potatoes, beets, carrots. Additional additives to the diet can be fish oil, bone meal, dry yeast, compound feed and premixes.
Reproduction and longevity
Oryol horse is highly fertile. So the average indicator for an offspring stud farm is 85-90 foals per year per 100 queens. Mares of this breed are distinguished by good milk yield. On horse farms, manual weaving is used. The main goal of breeders is to obtain healthy, large, strong, with high performance offspring.
To achieve this goal, the seed of the stallions of the Oryol trotter breed is often used. Artificial insemination is often used to breed hereditary trotters. Use material obtained from outstanding stallions. Casting of "future fathers" is carried out according to the following criteria: exterior, agility, severity of type.
The season of such weddings on horse farms lasts from February to June. After birth, the foal stays with the mother for up to six months. From a month old, he will be accustomed to concentrates. After moving away from the mother, the foals live in groups in the halls.
All winter they are trained in the step-lynx-step pattern. Upon reaching the year they will already be accustomed to harness and stress. Preparing for their main exam takes about 2 years. Upon reaching this age, they are tested at the racetrack. The lifespan of these horses is 25-30 years.
Exterior and color
The Oryol trotter has a long back, as it has 1 rib more than other breeds, there are 19, not 18. The horse is quite tall and has a harmonious physique. Horse features:
Oryol trotter has a long back
- growth - 1.65-1.7 m,
- weight - 500 kg
- the length of the body along the oblique line is 1.6 m,
- the chest is powerful, its girth is 1.8 m,
- the neck is long, curved, resembles a swan,
- compact head with a slightly protruding frontal part and a neat face,
- ears are small
- limbs dry, medium length with large hooves,
- croup compact.
The Oryol trotter is characterized by a gray suit in various variations. Less common are individuals of black, bulan or roan color, which is not considered a disadvantage. Horses inherited such colors from Dutch mares.
By nature, the Oryol trotter is a good-natured and complaisant animal, showing devotion to the owner. In response, he expects respect from the person. Some obstinacy in horses is inherent, but it can be caused by animal abuse. Horses respond to cruelty with unwillingness to obey. Representatives of this breed are hardworking and smart.
The famous Oryol stallions
Representatives of the pedigree line descended from the horse of Polkan are known worldwide for their agility. They were many times ahead of other horses and won victories. At the beginning of the 20th century, the horse at the racecourse often became the horse Krepysh. He competed in 1600 miles more than 80 times and won 55 times.
Later Krepysh came a worthy replacement. In the post-war period, a horse named Square was famous. It had a very beautiful exterior, but its main advantage was persistence. The stallion never gave up, although he lost to his opponents in speed, but he came first, showing endurance.
Other Oryol champions who left a mark in history:
Horses of the Oryol breed are energetic animals. In addition to hay and grass, vitamin and mineral supplements, grain and vegetables are included in their diet. The proportion of concentrated feed in the horse's menu is 25%. Cereal fruits are a source of protein that active animals need to keep fit.
Cereals for horses
Attention! It is especially important to properly compose a diet for foals. It includes fish oil, salt, vitamins. Lack of minerals and trace elements can lead to malformations and diseases.
Orlov horse care
Lobster horses need good care. Particular attention is paid to animal hygiene. After training, the wool must be cleaned with a special brush. The procedure begins on the left side of the neck, gradually moving down the torso. Mane washed with shampoo for horses. Comb it daily with a comb. Dry the sweat with a clean, dry cloth. Horses are bathed once a week, watering from a hose, using a soft brush made of natural fibers.
It is important to monitor the health of the hooves. Timely diagnosis will protect the horse from leg diseases. After each workout, the limbs are inspected and cleaned, and then lubricated with lamb fat with the addition of turpentine. Trotters need free walking. Fresh air has a beneficial effect on metabolism, and movement helps maintain good shape.
Attention! Due to excessive loads, the Oryol trotter may suffer from paralysis of the radial nerves and stretching or rupture of tendons.
The stall maintains cleanliness by regularly changing the litter. To reduce the load on the legs of animals, a rubber coating is placed on the floor. Cracks and bumps in the flooring are not permitted: they can cause hoof injuries.
Count Orlov created a trotter for use in a light harness. The horses met his expectations not only due to the ability to quickly and easily carry the crew. Oryol horses turned out to be very beautiful, so I drew attention to them to know. It used to be fashionable to have such a horse. Oryol trotters were used by wealthy people for walking and hunting.
Today, these horses are on the run. This is a sports breed, which over time has not lost its excellent qualities - energy, speed and endurance. In addition to participating in competitions, trotters are used for dressage and show jumping, as well as equestrian tourism.
Oryol trotters are highly regarded in Russia and in the world. Its representatives regularly take prizes, glorifying their country. The task of the Russian people is to preserve this breed, because it is part of our history.
In 1775, Count Alexei Orlov completed his military career and ceased to demolish his service. In an estate near Moscow, under the name Ostrov, the count began to breed horses and decided to devote his future life to breeding. Much later, Alexey Orlov decided to create a completely unique breed of horses. He wanted to combine in one suit the power of such breeds as Danish, Dutch, Norfolk with the grace and beauty of the Arabian breeds. He got this opportunity after the coup in 1762, when Empress Catherine II granted him the estate with land and peasants in the Voronezh region. It was there that the count's talent in zootechnics was manifested. According to the decree of the ruler, horses from the Turkish peninsula and selected breeds from stud farms belonging to the palace were brought to the estate. From this time begins the history of the breed.
Founder of Smetanka breed
It all started with the purchase by Count Orlov of a horse of Arab origin named Smetanka. I bought his count from the Turkish Khan for 60 thousand silver. To make it clear, the budget of the imperial factory was equal to the sum of 25 thousand rubles, and this is for the whole year. The founder of the breed Smetanka came to Russia in 1776, they brought him by land for a long time, almost two years. And having arrived at the Count's estate Ostrov near Moscow, Smetanka lived very little - only twelve months. But he managed to leave offspring - one mare and four stallions. The stallion Polkan turned out to be the most valuable for breeding a new breed. Smetanka got her name because of her color, light gray, almost white. This horse also had other features, for example, it had an extra 19th dorsal vertebra, due to which the back was more elongated.
There are many puzzles associated with the death of Smetanka. According to the first version, Smetanka died due to a long difficult road to Russia, according to the second - feed did not fit him, according to the third - negligence became the cause of death, the horse was pulled too tightly by the reins and Smetanka hit the edge of the log well, died. After these events, Count Orlov decided to move his entire household from the Island to Voronezh to the lands granted by the Empress. On these lands the plant of Count Orlov was built.
Descendants of Sour Cream
Orlov decided to create a breed of horses with the ability to reproduce a brisk trot. It is important. A horse that runs at a trot, gets tired a little, shakes the cart less, with a gallop and can not be compared. Orlov hoped that the horses of this breed would be large, but well-built. Equally convenient they will be harnessed to a harness and a plow. The difficult Russian climate and poor pavement for horses should not be affected.
From Holland to the estate of the Count were brought horses of the Frisian breed, which were characterized by good trotting. Orlov crossed them with Polkan, the son of Smetanka and other Arab stallions. So the descendants of Smetanka appeared, including a stallion named Bars I. He got his name thanks to his suit: light apples on a gray background, similar in color to the color of a leopard. Later it became the main producer and in less than 20 years produced a rather large offspring.
Count Orlov and the stallion Bars
It was impossible to find a horse in the region that was not a relative of Barca. For this, Barca began to be called the "Leopard Parent". Orlov died. The estate with the factory passed into the possession of his daughter. And the manager at the plant was V.I. Shishkin, serf without freestyle. Shishkin, having the talent of a breeder and the required experience, worthily continued the work of Orlov. Subsequently, Emperor Alexander I, evaluating the work of the plant, granted Shishkin a precious gift with a diamond and gave him a free gift.
Tests of the Oryol trotter
Both Orlov and Shishkin tested the Orlov trotter. Tests were arranged for agility. Training races were arranged at different distances. The mares trained from 3 to 7 years old, and the stallions from 3 to 8. Graf Orlov organized the “Moscow Race”, the essence of the event was that the horses had to run with a clear trot, the galloping crowd booed. People of all classes were allowed to participate. The war of 1812 put an end to the competition.
Competitions appeared again only in 1834, a hippodrome was opened in Europe, and the Moscow Running Society was organized. The world record was set by a stallion named Bychok, who was born at the Shishkin factory.He ran 3 miles in 5 minutes. 45 sec And it was acquired by one of the rich horse breeders for big money - 36 thousand rubles. Tests of the Oryol trotter brought a lot of suffering. Horses mutilated their hooves, because in those days there was no protection. Many of those involved in horse breeding, absolutely did not understand in this matter and made many mistakes.
Applied methods and techniques from which the horse became crippled. However, the records of the Oryol breed of horses were obvious. Stallion Light won the imperial competitions in Moscow. The amusing, harnessed to a shiver, showed the best result on the run - 5 minutes. 8, 0 sec. The Stallion Pass, who had never participated in sports and accidentally got on them, due to a dispute between his master, showed an almost record time of 5 minutes. 1 sec This stallion was noticed and began to be used as a producer. The horses began to breed Oryol breed throughout the country. Imported across the border, to the countries of Europe and the United States of America.
Our horses suffered their first defeats in competitions with standard-brand horses brought from America. It was the end of the 19th century. In their training, the Americans already used knee pads and other attributes that protected the horse's legs. They began to train Russian specialists in successful and tried-and-tested methods for preparing horses for competitions.
Steel races are American. They removed the distance of three miles, it was replaced by 1,600 meters. Lightweight horse carts were replaced by light American carts. The Americanization of the trotters led to the division of society into two camps: some were against the use of the American breed in crossing, they were satisfied with the pure breed of the Oryol horse, despite the fact that it was inferior to the breeds from America in terms of speed. Others were for the unification of the Oryol horse breeds with the American.
Ways of rebirth
The revival of the Oryol breed of horses did not happen immediately. For several years, only American horses have won at the racetrack. But in 1908, the Orlovets Krepysh won on the run in 2 minutes. 18.3 sec This record was the first but not the last for the stallion. Many more well-deserved victories took place in his life. Those who did not know anything about equestrian sports spoke of the stronger. The stallion received the title of "horse of the century." He participated in the races 79 times, 55 times came to the finish line first. He has 13 records. His career ended in a loss to a stallion with the nickname General H. of America.
Soviet period 1920-1930s
In the Soviet period, the exclusively purebred breeding method was used. Training became systematic, thoughtful actions, horses stopped crippling. However, the Civil War made adjustments, and the number of horses decreased. The records of the famous Fortress for a long time remained unconquered. Only in 1933, the Orlovets Ulov broke the record of Krepysh with the result of 2 minutes. 7.5 sec at 1600 m, the following year set a new record at a distance of 3200 meters - 4 minutes. 20.6 sec These records at the same time became European. Later, the Pilot and Waltz horses won the records of the Fortress.
The phenomenal record set by the stallion Sea Surf (1600 m-2 min. 4.5 sec) lasted a long time - 38 years. But the stallion Kvadrat became especially famous from Oryol. He became the winner of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in the nomination for the best exterior. The stallion was exceptionally handsome, but he did not differ in agility. Although he won first places in competitions with mestizo record holders.
When Square’s sports career ended, he became a manufacturer in the factory. His offspring has more than 600 horses. For its merits, the Square was awarded two monuments. One is installed at the Moscow stud farm, the second at VDNH. But the stallion Peony is recognized as the most phenomenal of the Oryol breed. In many ways, he was similar to Krepysh. He was distinguished by an excellent exterior, was three times recognized as the winner of the breed at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition, and was also a champion on the run. His main merit is in the production of excellent and playful progeny.
Even greater potential was in the grandchildren of Peony. The most famous of them are Cyprus and Cowboy. The stallion of Cyprus was set 14 records. He participated in the 1986 Derby and became a champion.
New Russian period
In 1991, the peony’s grandson, the cowboy stallion, achieved a record that cannot be beaten to this day. At the Ramensky Hippodrome, he finished with a result of 1 minute. 57.2 sec These stallions, having become producers, produced no less stellar offspring with their own records. A stallion named Colorit should be noted, he became the only three-time winner of the “Peony Prize” at the Moscow Hippodrome, the champion of the Equiros 2001 horse exhibition. 1 minute. 57.4 sec at a distance of 1600 m
Crisis and breed rescue
90 years it turned out to be difficult for the country, the economy crashed, a crisis ensued, and this also affected the area of horse breeding. In 1985, the stock of Oryol horses with pure breed amounted to 54,813 heads. And in 1997, this figure became dangerously low - 800 goals. Horse farms became bankrupt, horses had to be slaughtered, the fate of others was no better - they fell from starvation. A few private traders did not want to get involved with the breeding of the Oryol horses; American trotters were economically advantageous for them.
The salvation of the breed came from the CIS and France. Specialists and simply not indifferent from Russia teamed up with the association of trotting horse breeding "Commonwealth" and representatives of the CIS. With the help of this organization, relations were established with a trotting organization in France. This led to the development and strengthening of relations between Russia and France on cooperation in horse breeding. Championships began to take place, called "Days of France" in Russia, and similarly, "Days of Russia" in France. At the same time, steps were taken to increase the number of heads of Oryol trotters.
At the Ramensky and Moscow hippodromes, everything possible was done to increase the number of Oryol horses, additional cash prizes were introduced. Private stud farms began to pay more attention to breeding this particular breed. Despite all efforts, the 90s greatly crippled the environment of horse breeding. And it will take a lot of time to restore it.
The Oryol trotter is characterized by agility on a lynx, as mentioned above. They are perfectly able to transfer their own best qualities to subsequent descendants. The attractive appearance as a whole is perfectly combined with the elegance of forms and gracefulness of horse movements. It should be noted the fact that the salt and bulan horses of this breed can also be found. However, they are so rare to see that it is even surprising. Modern horses Orlov trotters are not only harmoniously stacked.
Horses of the Oryol trotter breed are well suited for harnessing. These beauties have a small head and a high-set neck with a swan curve. In addition, the animals have such a very muscular back. It is also necessary to say about strong legs.
Modern Orlov trotter
The modern Oryol trotter is recognized as a breeding Russian breed. There are eight main lines, of which the first and most important is the Peony line. The Khrenovsky stud farm, the Chesmensky, Altai and private organizations work with the Oryol horses. Championships for this breed are closed "Prize of Barca", "Prize of Peony", etc.
Main exterior features
Oryol trotter - horse powerful but graceful. It differs in height (at the withers from 160 cm) and dry physique. Color can vary, but gray, bay and black colors are most often found. Pinto are very rare. The coat is thick and soft. The shape of the head may also vary, but the broad-faced head with expressive eyes, as well as small ears and the Arabic profile (straight with a hump) are considered standard.
The neck is swan, gently bending, the back is elongated and straight, wide croup and long, fleshy legs. On the headstock (joints in the hoof) sometimes there are brushes. This breed is characterized by a harmonious body structure and an ideal ratio of muscular development and sophistication.